Pronouns

Personal pronouns – nominative, accusative, dative, reflexive

Nominative

je - I
tu – you (friendly, informal form)
il- he

elle - she

nous -we
vous - you (plural, e.g.: you all; polite, formal form, both in the singular and the plural)
ils - they (masculine, or masculine and feminine at the same time)
elles - they (feminine)

Nominative forms are used before the verb as in English (e.g.: je vais, tu lis, nous prenons). These forms are not used alone!
Je loses the e before a word beginning with a vowel, and takes the form j’: je + aime = j’aime.
The stressed  forms of nominative personal pronouns are used alone:

moi - I
toi - you (friendly, informal form)
lui - he
elle - she

nous -we
vous - you (plural, e.g.: you all; polite, formal form, both in the singular and the plural)
eux - they (masculine, or masculine and feminine at the same time)
elles - they (feminine)

Ee.g. Qui habite ici? – Moi. – Who lives here? – Me.

These stressed forms can come before the whole structure if the pronoun is stressed: Moi, je travaille (It is me who am working).

Accusative

me - me
te - you (friendly, informal form)
le - him

la - her

nous -us
vous - you (plural, e.g.: you all; polite, formal form, both in the singular and the plural)
les - them

Me, te, le, la lose the last letter (e or a) before a word beginning with a vowel, and they take the forms m’, t’, l’.

Examples:

Je t’aime (I love you).
Il les déteste (He hates them).
Ils nous visitent (They visit us).

Dative

me - (to) me
te - (to) you (friendly, informal form)
lui - (to) him
, (to) her

nous- (to) us
vous- (to) you (plural, e.g.: you all; polite, formal form, both in the singular and the plural)
leur- (to) them

Examples: Il me donne le journal (He gives the newspaper to me ). Nous leur écrivons (We write to them).

 Reflexive

me - myself
te - yourself (friendly, informal form)
se - himself, herself, itself

nous - ourselves
vous - yourselves; yourself/yourselves (polite, formal form, both in the singular and the plural)
se - themselves

These pronouns are mostly used with reflexive verbs. The subject of reflexive verbs is the same as their (direct) object. These verbs are used together with reflexive pronouns. In English these verbs are usually used without a reflexive pronoun.

Example: Je me lave (I wash [implying “myself”, not something or someone else)

There are reflexive verbs that use the reflexive pronouns although they do not really have a reflexive meaning, e.g. s’occuper (to deal with):

Je m’occupe de mon chien (I deal with my dog).

These forms of reflexive pronouns are used with a reflexive verb even if the verb has another argument as a direct object. E.g.: I wash my hands – “my hands” is a direct object, and the action has an effect on the subject itself (the possessive adjective “my” refers to this fact). So, in this case we could say “Je me lave” (I wash – myself) or “Je lave les mains” (I wash my hands). But more likely we would use a reflexive pronoun instead of the possessive adjective:

Example: Je me lave les mains (I wash my hands). ( = Je me lave + Je lave mes mains.)

Accusative and dative forms with the imperative

The forms me and te are not used with a verb in the imperative. Moi and toi are used instead. In the imperative the personal pronouns are connected to the verb with a hyphen:

Regarde-moi (look at me). Regarde-le (look at him). Regarde-la (look at her). Regarde-nous (look at us). Lavez-vous (wash [yourselves]). Regarde-les (look at them).

Donne-moi le livre (give the book to me). Donne-lui le livre (give the book to him). Donne-nous le livre (give the book to us). Donnons-vous le livre (let’s give the book to you). Donne-leur le livre (give the book to them).

Possessive Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives

Possessive Adjectives

mon, ma, mes - my
ton, ta, tes - your
son, sa, ses – his
, her, its

notre, nos - our
votre, vos - your (including more than one owner)
leur, leurs- their

In the singular (only one owner) they have three forms, one for the masculine, one for the feminine and one for the plural nouns. In the plural forms (more owners) they have two forms: one for the singular both masculine and feminine, and one for the plural nouns.
The gender of the following noun (and not the gender of the owner!) defines its form. Practically, possessive adjectives behave in the same way as the definite article (le, la, l’, les), possessive adjectives are used instead of the article so using the definite article next to the possessive adjective would be incorrect.

Examples:

ma maison = my house (maison is feminine: la maison)
ta soeur= your sister (soeur is feminine: la soeur)
son frère = his/her brother (frère is masculine: le frère)
notre frère = our brother
leur livre = their book (livre is masculine: le livre)

mes maisons = my houses
tes soeurs = your sisters
ses frères = his/her brothers
nos frères = our brothers
leurs livres = their books

If a feminine noun begins with a vowel, the forms mon, ton, son are used (and not ma, ta, sa):

mon amie = my (girl)friend

NB: 3rd person singular and plural pronouns and adjectives can be used referring to not only people but things too, e.g.:

J’ai une table. J’aime beaucoup sa couleur  = I have a table. I like its colour very much.

Possessive Pronouns

They stand alone, without a noun after them:

le mien, la mienne;  les miens, les miennes – mine
le tien, la tienne;  les tiens, les tiennes – yours
le sien, la sienne; les siens, les siennes – his, hers, its

le nôtre, la nôtre; les nôtres – ours
le vôtre, la nôtre; les vôtres – yours (more than one owner)
le leur, la leur;   les leurs – theirs

Examples:

La table est la mienne – The table is mine.
Voici une montre. C’est la nôtre – Here is a watch. It is ours.
Ce livre est le sien – This book is his.